Q.1 The Third Estate comprised
(a) Poor servants and small peasants, landless labourers (b) Peasants and artisans
(c) Big businessmen, merchants, lawyers etc. (d) All the above
Q.2.That ‘each member should have one vote’ was advocated by:
(a) Georges Danton (b) Rousseau (c) Jean Paul Marat (d) the Jacobins
Q.3.Which of the following decisions was taken by the convention?
(a) Declared France a constitutional monarchy (b) Abolished the monarchy
(c) All men and women above 21 years got the right to vote (d) Declared France a Republic
Q.4.Which of the following is not the idea of the revolutionary journalist Desmoulins about Liberty?
(a) Liberty is finishing off your enemies (b) Liberty is Happiness, Reason, Equality and Justice
(c) Liberty is the Declaration of Right (d) Liberty is not a child who has to be disciplined before maturity
Q.5. How does a ‘Subsistence Crisis’ happen?
(a) Bad harvest leads to scarcity of grains (b) Food prices rise and the poorest cannot buy bread
(c) Leads to weaker bodies, diseases, deaths and even food riots (d) All the above
Q.6. In the war against Prussia and Austria, the army sang which patriotic song?
(a) 'Liberty', written by an unknown woman poet (b) ‘Marseillaise’ written by the poet Roget de Lisle
(c) ‘Viva France’ written by a French peasant (d) None of the above
Q7.Which of the following statements is untrue about the Third Estate?
(a) The Third Estate was made of the poor only (b) Within the Third Estate some were rich and some were poor
(c) Richer members of the Third Estate owned lands (d) Peasants were obliged to serve in the army, or build roads
Q.8. Who wrote the pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’?
(a) Mirabeau, a nobleman (b) Abbe Sieyes (c) Rousseau, a philosopher (d) Montesquieu
Q.9. A guillotine was _______________________
(a) A device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded
(b) A fine sword with which heads were cut off
(c) A special noose to hang people (d) none of the above
Q.10. When did the French Revolution begin?
(a) July 14, 1789 (b) January 10, 1780 (c) August 12, 1782 (d) None of the above
Answer: 1(d) 2(b) 3(d) 4(b) 5(d) 6(b) 7(a) 8(b) 9(a) 10(a)
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]
Q.1. what was the subsistence crisis? Why did it occur in France during the Old Regime?
1- The population of France was on the rise. It rose from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789.This led to increase in the demand for food grains.
2-The production of food grains could not keep pace with the demand and the price of bread which was thestaple diet of the majority Rose rapidly.
3- The wages also did not keep pace with the rise in prices. The gap between the Rich and the poor widened. This led to the subsistence crisis.
Q.2.What was the system of voting in the Estates General? What change did the Third Estate want in this system?
Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted
1. According to the principle that each estate had one vote.
2. Members of the Third Estate demanded that voting must now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.
3. This was according to the democratic principles put forward by philosophers like Rousseau in his book, The Social Contract.
Q.3. Describe the incidents that led to the storming of the Bastille.
1- National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution; the rest of France was seething with turmoil.
2- A severe winter had meant a bad harvest, the price of bread rose. Often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.
3- After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.
4- At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed Bastille.
Q.4. Describe how the new political system of constitutional monarchy worked in France.
The constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. That is,
1. Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote.
2. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote.
3. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens.
4. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.
Q.5.What was ‘natural and inalienable rights’?
1-.The constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens
2- Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law were established as ‘natural and inalienable rights’, i.e., they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away
3-It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural right.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS ( 5 MARKS ):
Q.1. Explain the importance of the following events on the course of the French Revolution:
(a) Storming of the Bastille (c) The passing of the Civil Constitution of the clergy
Ans. (a) On July 14, 1789, a mob of Paris stormed the fortress – the prison of Bastille – considered a symbol of oppression and despotism. The Swiss guards were killed and prisoners set free. The mob stole arms and ammunition. To this day, France celebrates ‘Bastille Day’ on 14thJuly every year.
(c) In 1790, the Civil Constitution nationalised the church. The clergy or group of persons who enjoyed special powers in the church were also forced to relinquish power. Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the church were confiscated.
Q.2. Describe the Reign of Terror and role played by Robespierre in it.
Ans.The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror.
1. Maximilian Robespierre, leader of the Jacobins, followed the policy of severe control and punishment.
2. All those he saw as enemies of the Republic — ex-nobles, clergy, political opponents — were arrested, tried and guillotined if found guilty.
3. He issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices.
4. Meat and bread were rationed.
5. Use of expensive white flour was forbidden.
Robespierre followed his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation. Finally, he was convicted, arrested and guillotined in July 1794.
Q.3What did the following symbols convey in the Declaration of Rights?
(i) The broken chain (ii) The bundle of rods or fasces (iii)Sceptre (iv)Snake biting its tail to form a ring (v) Red Phrygian cap (vi)The law tablet
Ans. (i) the broken chains: Chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.
(ii) The bundle of rods or fasces: One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle.Strength lies in unity.
(iii) Sceptre: Symbol of royal power.
(iv)Snake biting its tail to form a ring: Symbol of eternity. A ring has neither beginning nor end.
(v) Red Phrygian cap: Cap worn by a slave upon becoming free.
(vi)The law tablet: The law is the same for all, and all are equal before it.
Q.4.write short note on Jacobins?
Ans.1- They got their name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris.
2-They belonged to the less prosperous sections of the society.
3-They included small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily wage earners.
4-Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre.
5-A large group among the Jacobin decided to wear long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers.
6-This was to set themselves apart from the fashionable sections of society especially the nobles who wore knee breeches.
Q.5. Discuss the participation of women in political clubs, their activities and demands.
Ans.From the very beginning, women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society.
1. They hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary government to introduce measures to improve their lives.
2. Most women of the third estate had to work for a living. They worked as seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market, or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people.
3. Most women did not have access to education or job training. Their wages were lower than those of men.
4. One of their main demands was that women should be given the same political rights as men.
5. Women were disappointed that the constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens.