Key concepts and terms:Management of Natural Resources 1. Natural Resource: It is stock of the nature such as air, water, soil, minerals, coal, petroleum, forest and wildlife that are useful to mankind in many ways. 2. Pollution: It is defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our soil, air or water, which harmfully affect human lives or the lives of other species.
3. pH of water: pH stands for ‘potential of hydrogen’. The acidic and basic character of aqueous solutions can be described in terms of hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion concentration. A pH below 7 indicates an acid solution and above 7 indicates an alkaline solution.
4. Three R’s to save the Environment: We can reduce pressure on the environment by applying the maxim of ‘Reduce, Recycle and Reuse’ in our lives.
5. Sustainable Development: It is the development which can be maintained for a long time without undue damage to the environment.
6. Need to manage our Resources : Our natural resources are limited. With the rapid increase in human population, due to improvement in health care, the demand for all resources is also increasing.
7. Biodiversity: It is the existence of a wide variety of species of plants, animals and microorganisms in a natural habitat within a particular environment or of genetic variation within a species.
8. Wildlife: It means all those naturally occurring animals, plants and their species which are not cultivated, domesticated and tamed.
9. Water Harvesting: It means capturing rainwater where it falls or capturing the run off in a local area and taking measures to keep the water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place.
10. Fossil fuels: These fuels are obtained from the remains of plants and animals, which got buried beneath the earth millions of years ago, changed into coal, petroleum and natural gas due to excessive heat and high pressure inside the earth.
11. Coal: It contains chiefly carbon and its compounds mainly nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen. It also contains inorganic matter.
12. Non-renewable Energy Sources: These are energy sources which cannot be replaced easily when they get exhausted and are also called conventional sources of energy. Ex: Fossil fuels.
13. Uses of Fossil FuelsCoal: Thermal power plants and steam engines.Petroleum: Petroleum products like petrol and diesel are used as means of transport.
14. Management of Fossil Fuels: the natural gas is a good alternative to fossilfuels like coal and petroleum. The use of alternative source of nonconventionalenergy such as solar energy, wind energy, biomass energy, etc.should be promoted to save the reserves of fossil fuels. Biogas can also beused for various purposes.
Q. Why is sustainable management of natural resources necessary? Out of the two methods reuse and recycle which one would you suggest to practise and why? Answer : Sustainable management of natural resources is necessary to increase the over all life of natural resources specially non-renewable resources and also to control the environmental pollution. Both reuse and recycle are the good choices. Reuse: If we reuse something then the cost of recycle will be saved. Recycle: It is not necessary that each and everything can be reused, so after getting recycled the life of the resource will be enhanced.
Q. Why should biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes be discarded in two separate dust bins? Answer : Biodegradable wastes can be properly recycled for future use. If biodegradable and non biodegradable wastes are discarded in the same dustbin, then the non-biodegradable waste will make the biodegradable waste unfit for recycling. It will also interfere in the process of recycling.
Q.We often observe domestic waste decomposing in the bylanes of residential colonies. Suggest ways to make people realise that the improper disposal of waste is harmful to the environment. Answer : Some of the ways to make people realize that the improper disposal of waste is harmful to the environment are: (a) Improper disposal of waste will serve as a breeding ground for mosquitoes and will create favourable conditions for the spread of various diseases. (b) Improper disposal of waste will release harmful gases in the environment. It will make the environment unclean and unhygienic for normal living of the organisms. (c) The waste will flow to water bodies along with the rain water and become a threat to aquatic organisms. Q. List and explain any two advantages associated with water harvesting at community level. Answer : Two advantages associated with water harvesting at community level are: (a) It will reduce the overexploitation of water resources. (b) It also helps in mitigation of droughts and floods.
Q.List four advantages of water stored in the ground. Answer : Advantage of water stored in the ground (i) It does not evaporate and is available to wells (ii) It does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes etc. (iii) Provides moisture for vegetation over a wide range. (iv) It is also protected from contamination by human and animal waste.
Q."Burning fossil fuels is a cause of global warming." Justify this statement. Answer : Fossil fuels are composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. When these are burnt, the products are CO2, H2O, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels produces green house gases such as CO2, . If huge amount of fossil fuels are burnt, it would produce high amount of CO2 resulting intense global warming.
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