Q. What are different types of coal? Ans: (a) Peat (less than 20% carbon) (b) Lignite (Brown Coal) contains 25 – 35 % carbon. (c) Bituminous coal (Soft coal) contains 45 – 86 % carbon. (d) Anthracite coal (Hard coal - It has the highest heat energy) contain 87 – 97%carbon. Q. How coal is formed? Ans: Coal is formed by degradation of wood under the influence of high pressure and temperature over millions of years is called carbonization. Q. What is destructive distillation of coal? Ans: When coal is heated in the absence of air is called destructive distillation of coal. Q. How do various constituents of petroleum is separated? Ans: Various constituents of petroleum are separated by fractional distillation in fractionating columns is known as refining of petroleum. The various fractions of petroleum obtained are
Petroleum Gas Fuel for home (LPG)
Petrol Motor fuel
Kerosene Fuel for stove and jet aircrafts.
Diesel Fuel for heavy motor vehicles.
Lubricating oil Lubrication
Fuel Oil Fuel for Power Stations and Ship
Paraffin wax Candles, Vaseline
Bitumen/asphalt Paints, road surfacing
Q. How is natural gas formed? Ans: Natural gas is formed whenever vegetation decomposes in marshes, sewage and in coal or petroleum mines. It is made up of 90 % methane. Q.What are the main uses of Natural gas Ans: (a) it is used for producing H2 gas by heating 1250k. (b) For manufacturing Carbon black that is used in rubber industry as reinforcing agent to make tyre. (c) For manufacturing Petrochemical and fertilizer Q. Why petroleum is also called black gold? Ans: The constituents of petroleum are very useful for us. Due to its great commercial importance, petroleum is also called 'black gold'. Q.We often uses LPG in our home for cooking. How you detect the leakage of gas? What substance is added to LPG for this purpose? Ans: A gas like hydrogen sulphide which smells like rotten eggs is added to natural gas Q. What do you mean by PCRA? What are their tips? Ans: In India, the Petroleum Conservation Research Association(PCRA) advises people how to save petrol/diesel while driving. Their tips are
Drive at a constant and moderate speed as far as possible.
Switch off the engine at traffic lights or a t a place where you have to wait.
Ensure correct tyre pressure.
Ensure regular maintenance of the vehicle.
Q.Name, constituent of petroleum which is used for following purposes. (i) To make candles. (ii) A solvent for dry cleaning (iii) For surfacing roads. (iv) Jet engine fuel. (v) For lubrication. Ans: (1) Paraffin wax (ii) petrol (iii) Bitumen/Asphalt (iv) kerosene (v) lubricating Oil Q. What is the composition of coal? Answer: Coal is a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Q. What do you understand by petroleum refining? Ans: The process used to obtain various constituents of petroleum is called petroleum refining. Q. What is petroleum? : Answer: Petroleum is a natural occurring black, smelly liquid which mainly mixture of hydrocarbon and small amount of impurities like sulphur.