1. A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a _____________ .
2. Species found only in a particular area are known as ______.
Ans: Endemic species
3. Migratory birds fly to far away places because of ____ _ changes.
Ans: Weather /climatic
4. ___________ National Park is the first Reserve Forest of India where the finest Indian teak is found.
Ans: Satpura National
5. A group of populations which are capable of interbreeding is called d_______________
4. Differentiate between the following:
(i) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve
Ans: Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of protected land for conservation of wild life, plant and animal resources and traditional life of the tribals living in the area.
Wildlife sanctuary: Areas where animals are protected from any disturbance to them and their habitat.
(ii) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary
Ans: The zoo keeps animals in captivity, within artificially created habitat, whereas the sanctuary provides home to animals in their natural habitat without captivity.
(iii) Endangered and extinct species
Ans: Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as the endangered animal e.g. Tiger where as a species that has completely disappeared from the planet like the pink-headed duck and the cheetah is called extinct species
(iv) Flora and fauna
Ans: All the different kinds of plants on earth constitute its flora and all its different kinds of animals are collectively called its fauna.
2 marks Questions
1. How does deforestation reduce rainfall on land?
Ans: Since plants help in evaporation of water , deforestation reduce rainfall on land.
2. How does deforestation led to floods on the land?
Ans: Deforestation also leads to a decrease in the water holding capacity of the soil. The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced. So, there are floods
3. What is the purpose of making national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves?
Ans: The purpose of making national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves is to conserve and protect the whole ecosystem from exploitation and to protect the ecosystem.
3 mark Questions.
1. Why should we conserve biodiversity?
Ans: This is because Biodiversity maintains the environment around us. Plants and animals together maintain several natural cycles such as the oxygen, nitrogen and carbon cycles. These gases in turn play a crucial role in maintaining life on earth.
2. Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
Ans: It is a pity that even protected forests are not safe because people living in the neighborhood encroach upon them and destroy them.
3. Some tribal’s depend on the jungle. How?
Ans: Some tribals depend on the jungle as they live in the deep forest like primitive people had lived in ancient time. They are still away from the basic amenities of modern life Forest provide them food items like seed grains, fruit, raw vegetables and other products like honey, meat of hunted wild animals for themselves, fodder for theirs animals, wood fuel for heating and cooking even clothing using natural fibres, leaves and animal skins.
4. What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
Ans: The main causes of deforestation are uses of forest resources by the human being to meet the growing demand of population, rapid urbanization, and industrialization. Some natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and severe droughts.
The consequences of deforestation are: (a) Increase in carbon dioxide level in the air. (b) Increase in temperature and pollution level on earth. (c) Lowering in ground water level. (d) More chances of natural calamities like floods and droughts. (e) Soil erosion leading to loss of humus and fertility of the top soil. (f) Desertification of large areas and (g) Decrease in water holding capacity and nutrient content of the soil.
5. What is Red Data Book?
Ans: Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants
6. What do you understand by the term migration?
Ans: Migration is the phenomenon of movement of a species from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year for a specific purpose like breeding.
5 marks Questions
1. In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.
Ans: Yes, cutting trees for shelter and supply in factories is proper and justified. But equal number (or more) of trees should be replanted so that the land remains covered with trees and there is least damage to the environment and natural habitat of wild animals.
2. How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
Ans: We can help in maintaining the green wealth of our locality by following ways
(a) By planting as many trees as possible in open unused land (b) By reducing use of trees for firewood and other purposes.(c) Recycling and reuse of paper (d) wood should be done to avoid cutting of wood.
3. Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.
Ans: Paper is made from the pulp of wood. Production of paper on a large scale needs regular supply of trees. This causes deforestation of large areas of land. So, we should save paper.
Paper can be saved by: (a) Recycling of used paper. (b) Reusing paper- Note books of previous year having blank pages should be used as rough copies (c) Wastage of paper for fun should be avoided.
4. What will happen if the habitat of an animal is disturbed?
Ans: If the natural habitat of animals is disturbed or destroyed, natural balance in the ecosystem will get disturbed and many animals will get extinct. The animals will not be able to live freely in their habitat.
5. Discuss the effects of deforestation on the next generation:
Ans: Deforestation increases pollution of air, global warming, reduces rainfall, decrease in ground water level and soil erosion. These problems will be faced by the next generations and will go on increasing.
Less rainfall will lead to less food production in the farms. Prices of food items will increase very high. Next generations will also face shortage of fresh water and unfavorable climate change due to deforestation.