9th Atomic Structure (Discovery of a fundamental particle protons)
9th Atoms and Molecules
9th Structure of Atoms
Practice paper and sample paper based On Atomic structure
Lord Rutherford (1911) and his coworkers performed an experiment. They bombarded a very thin, gold fail with Alpha particles from a radioactive source. They observed that most of the particles passed straight through the foil undeflected. But a few particles were deflected at different angles. One out of 4000 Alpha particles was deflected at an angle greater than 150.
Following conclusions were drawn from the Rutherford’s Alpha Particles scattering experiment.
1. The fact that majority of the particles went through the foil undeflected shows that most of the space occupied by an atom is empty.
2. The deflection of a few particles over a wide angle of 150 degrees shows that these particles strike with heavy body having positive charge.
3. The heavy positively charged central part of the atom is called nucleus.
4. Nearly all of the mass of atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
5. The size of the nucleus is very small as compared with the size of atom.
Defects of Rutherford Model
Rutherford model of an atom resembles our solar system. It has following defects:
1. According to classical electromagnetic theory, electron being charged body will emit energy continuously. Thus the orbit of the revolving electron becomes smaller and smaller until it would fall into the nucleus and atomic structure would collapse.
2. If revolving electron emits energy continuously then there should be a continuous spectrum but a line spectrum is obtained.
Bohr’s Atomic Model
Neil Bohr (1913) presented a model of atom which has removed the defects of Rutherford Model. This model was developed for hydrogen atom which has only proton in the nucleus and one electron is revolving around it.
Postulates of Bohr’s Atomic Model
The main postulates of Bohr’s Model are given below:
1. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in a fixed orbit.
2. As long as electron revolves in a fixed orbit it does not emit and absorb energy. Hence energy of electron remains constant.
3. The orbit nearest to the nucleus is the first orbit and has lowest energy. When an electron absorbs energy it jumps from lower energy orbit to higher energy orbit. Energy is emitted in the form of radiations, when an electron jumps from higher energy orbit to lower energy orbit. The unit of energy emitted in the form of radiations is called quantum. It explains the formation of atomic spectrum.
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Solved Summative Assessment Paper
Solved some important questions for coming CBSE Exam
How was the neutron discovered?
How was the proton discovered?
How was the Electron discovered?
Extra mark’s Notes, "Atomic Structure"
How was the Nucleus discovered?
Structure of an Atom IX Chemistry assignment-1
Structure of an Atom IX Chemistry assignment-2