The surroundings where organisms live naturally are called its habitat.
Plants and animals have special features that help them to survive in their own habitat
Habitat can be terrestrial or aquatic.
Terrestrial habitat: the land where all plants and animals survive is called territorial habitat .For example: deserts, forests and grasslands, as well as coastal and mountain regions. Camels and cactus plants live in deserts only.
Aquatic habitat: The water where plants and animals survive is known as aquatic habitat like rivers, ponds, lakes, ocean and swamps. For example, fish live in water.
Adaptation: Plants and animals develop certain habits that help them survive in their surroundings, and this is known as adaption.
Acclimatization: The small adjustments by the body to overcome small changes in the surrounding atmosphere for a short period of time are called acclimatization.
Biotic and Abiotic components: These are living and non living components of a habitat .
Biotic components include all the livings organisms in a habitat like plants and animals .it is further classified into producers ,consumers , scavengers’ and decompose
Abiotic components include all the non-living things in a habitat like air, water, soil, sunlight and heat.
Q. What is the name for food producer?
Q. Is desert habitat terrestrial or aquatic?
Q. What is the term used to describe the response of plant and animals to light?
Ans: Photo tropism
Q. What we name the Plants growing in dry desert area ?
Q. What is decomposer?
Ans: Organism that feed on the dead and decay remains of plants and animal is called decomposer. Eg. Microorganism like bacteria and fungi.
Q. How are decomposes helpful to us?
Ans: Decomposer help to break down dead plants and animal into organic matter that increase fertility of soil .
Q. What are scavengers?
Ans: Living organism feed on dead animals helps to clean environment are called scavengers like vulture, crow , jackal etc.
Q. What type of consumer are carnivores?
Ans: Secondary consumer as the feed indirectly on plants for example tiger , lions, wolves etc
Q. State any two flight adaptation seen in areal animals?
Ans: Two flight adaptations seen in areal animals are: (a) Body modified like boat to minimize air resistance
(b) The limbs are modified into wings
Q. Define: (a) Epiphytes (b) Pneumatic bones (c) Nictitating membrane
Ans: (a) Roots of some plants like Spanish moss and some fern grow on other plants or tree to get sunlight is known as Epiphytes.
(b)The animals that can fly have hollow bones that are called Pneumatic bones. Like bones of birds
(c) The membrane that protect eyes of fish under water is called Pneumatic bones
Q. What are the adoptation seen in desert plants?
Ans: The adaptations seen in desert animals are:
(a) Store extra water in their body
(b) Lives in deep borrow
(c) Try to avoid body contact with hot ground
(d) Having long eye lash to protect eyes from sand
Q. How does temperature affect plants and animals?
Ans: Temperature affects the structure of leaves and stem of plants. Temperature affects the colouration of some birds and animals. Temperature also affects the size and body parts of animals.
Q. Biotic and abiotic component are dependants on each other Explain?
Ans: Animals depends on plants for food. Plants depend on light, air, soil and water for preparation of food. Therefore, biotic components directly or indirectly depend on abiotic components. Decomposers break down dead biotic components into organic matter that enrich soil. Photosynthesis help to maintain balance of gases in air and water in nature.
Q.What we call the plants that grow in moist habitat?
Q. what is the meaning of oviparous and viviparous
Ans: Oviparous are those animals which lay eggs example- crow, lizard where as viviparous are those animals which do not lay eggs and give birth to young ones for example- lion, dog.
Q. How is a cactus adapted to survive in a desert?
Ans: Cactus has a waxy surface with lots of water in it. it also has thorns to prevent loss of water. This is how it lives in the desert. it also lives just because of its thick fleshy stem.
Q. What is acclimisation?
Ans: The small problems some time occur in the body of organism over short period , The process of overcoming small changes in the surroundings is called acclimisation.
Q. How do plants and animals adapt themselves?
Ans: Plants and animals adapt themselves to different surroundings with the help of adaptive features they have. For Example: Presence of wings, flight muscles and a stream-lined body helps birds in flight. Birds also have hallow bones that make their body light. Presence of fur on the body of the polar bear which protects it from the cold temperature.
Q. Write two adaptive features in frog which help them to stay both of them water and land.
Ans: Frogs have moist skin for exchange of gases in water and they have lungs to breath in air
Q. Give reasons:
(a) Why are deep sea worms blind?
(b) Why are some marine creatures living in the deep sea give out light of there of own? (c) Why the upper surface of the leaves of lotus have a thick cuticle ?
Ans: a. As we move deep into seas and oceans the amount of light or the visibility decreases. Deep sea worms are blind because of the lack of requirement. Some worms have large eyes but those are not for the purpose of seeing. These worms have developed strong sense of smell to encounter these problems.
b. Since there is lack of light in deep seas, some organisms can give out light to assist them in finding their way in the dark. This also helps them in finding prey to feed on and can also be used to find a mating partner.
C. Lotus is an aquatic plant. The leaves of the lotus plant have a thick waxy cuticle that helps in repelling water and keeps the stomata open so that water transport occurs effectively in plant
Q. why do cockroaches hide their face when sunlight falls on them?
Ans: Cockroaches have some light receptors cells in their eyes which cannot tolerate the high intensity light. This is the reason why they run toward darker areas during sunlight.
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