LESSON: NUTRITION IN PLANTS - Eureka plus 7th science Solution
I. 1. a saprophyte 2. autotrophic 3. chlorophyll 4. starch 5. photosynthesis 6. fix nitrogen
II. 1. X 2. X 3. ✓ 4. X 5. X 6. X
III. 1. The process by which an organism obtains substances that provide energy, help in growth and maintain the body is called nutrition.
2. No. Birds are heterotrophs.
3. Living organisms that feed on other living organisms are known as heterotrophs.
4. Fungi are saprophytes.
5. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment called chlorophyll.
6. Yes. The leaves of plants such as crotons appear red because the green chlorophyll in such plants is masked by a red pigment.
7. Oxygen is produced during the process of photosynthesis.
8. Rhizobium bacteria live in the roots of plants such as beans, peas and grams.
9. Mistletoe is a 'Partial parasitic plant.
10. Food made by the leaves is transported to all parts of the plants through phloem tubes.
IV. 1. Autotrophs: Autotrophs are the organisms that make their own food by using simple substances from their surroundings. Examples: most plants, unicellular algae and some bacteria.
Heterotrophs: All organisms that obtain nutrition by feeding on other living organisms are called heterotrophic organisms. Examples: animals
2. Carbon dioxide + Water--- ---> Glucose (sugar) + Oxygen.
3. Total parasitic plants : Plants that do not have chlorophyll and obtain food and water from other plants are called total parasitic plants. For example, Cuscuta plant.
Partial parasitic plants : They grow on trees such as mango and teak. They have chlorophyll and makes some of their food, but depend on the host plant for water and certain nutrients. For example, Mistletoe plant.
4. Growing a crop such as beans, after growing a crop such as wheat, in order to increase the fertility of the soil is called rotation of crops.
5. Some plants depend on other plants for food and water. Such plants are called parasitic plants. For example, Cuscuta.
6. Lichens are formed by the association of an alga and a fungus, and sometimes a photosynthesising bacterium. The organisms help each other to live.
VI 1. Leaves help a plant to make its food by a process called photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy. In this process, water and carbon dioxide combine to form sugar and oxygen.
2. The saprophyte (fungus) grows on organic matter. It secretes digestive juices which break down organic matter into simple substances and convert it into a solution. The saprophyte absorbs the solution and obtains nutrition.
3. The roots of bean plants contain certain bacteria called Rhizobium. These bacteria convert nitrogen gas from air into water-soluble nitrogenous substances, which are used by the plants to make proteins.
4. Parasitic plants depend on other living plants for food and water. A parasitic plant damages the host plant. Saprophytes are organisms that obtain nutrition from dead organic matter.
5. Boil some water in a container and place a leaf in it for about 3 minutes.
Remove the leaf from the boiling water and place it in a test tube and pour enough alcohol (ethanol or rectified spirit) to cover the leaf.
Place the test tube in boiling water and let the alcohol boil.
Stop boiling the alcohol when the leaf has turned completely colourless.
Wash the leaf with tap water. Lay the leaf on a clean dish and pour some dilute iodine solution on it.
A bluish colour will develop on the leaf. Iodine reacts with starch to give a bluish colour. This proves that starch is present in the leaves.
6. Chlorophyll is the green pigment present in the chloroplasts of leaves. They trap energy from sunlight and use it to make food for the plant. Some plants have leaves that do not appear green. These leaves also have chlorophyll. The chlorophyll in such leaves is masked by pigments of different colors.
Higher Order Thinking Skills
1. The leaf is exposed to sunlight.
2. The chlorophyll in the leaf cells absorbs the sunlight.
3. Air enters the stomata and carbon dioxide is taken into the leaf cells.
4. Energy-rich sugar molecules are formed.
5. Oxygen is formed and released through the stomata. 6. Excess sugar is converted to starch.
LESSON 2-NUTRITION IN ANIMALS
1. small, Simple molecules 2. Small intestine 3.Amylase
4. Fatty Acid 5.Only Fats 6. Carbon dioxide, water, energy
7. Cellular respiration 8. Amino acids
II. 1.e, 2.d 3.a 4.b, 5.c
III 1. Pancreatic juice 2. Blood 3. Amylase 4. Liver 5. Glands in the inner walls of the stomach
6. Amino acids 7. Mucus 8. Pancreas
IV. 1, Digestion is the process through which the body converts useful substances in the food into simple substances. It takes place with the help of certain enzymes secreted by various organs of the digestive system.
2. Organs of the human digestive system are mouth, oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine.
3. Incisors are the four front teeth which are used to bite or cut food into smaller pieces. The canines are the tearing teeth present, one each on either side of the incisors, on each jaw.
4. Saliva is a digestive juice. It contains amylase that breaks down carbohydrates into sugar.
5. The inner walls of the small intestine have finger-like projections called villi. These villi are richly supplied with blood vessels. They increase the surface area for absorption of useful substances.
6. Complex fat molecules present in the food items such as butter, oil, milk and meat are broken into simple fatty acids in the small intestine.
V. 1. Food items such as wheat, potato and rice contain a carbohydrate called starch. A starch molecule is made up of several hundred glucose molecules linked together. It is a very large molecule and therefore the body cannot use it. The amylase secreted by the saliva in the mouth starts breaking down the carbohydrates. The pancreatic juice helps in further breaking down of carbohydrates into simple glucose molecules in the small intestine. The body uses glucose to obtain energy.
2. Proteins present in food items such as pulses, milk, meat and fish are complex substances. Each protein molecule is made up of many small amino acid molecules. The digestion of proteins starts in the stomach where the digestive juice called pepsin is present. The digestion of proteins is completed in the small intestine where the pancreatic juice breaks down proteins into amino acids. The body uses amino acids to grow and repair injured tissue.
3. The blood carries the glucose obtained from the digested food to every cell of the body. The glucose is broken down inside the cell in the presence of oxygen. During this process, the chemical energy present in the glucose is released along with carbon dioxide and water. This process is known as cellular respiration. This is how cells obtain energy and use it to perform different functions.
4. Ruminants have a four-chambered stomach. The first chamber is called the rumen. These herbivores eat quickly and store large amounts of grass in the rumen which contains millions of microbes and a large amount of saliva. The microbes begin to break down the food in the rumen. The animal now regurgitates the contents of the rumen back into the mouth several times to chew on it. The additional chewing helps in breaking down the cellulose contents further. From the rumen, the contents pass into the other two chambers before it reaches the fourth chamber. In these chambers, the hydrochloric acid and the gastric juices digest the proteins.
5. Amoeba lives in freshwater puddles and ponds and feeds mostly on remains of plants.
Nutrition in Amoeba involves the following:
• Ingestion: Amoeba senses a food particle, moves towards it and engulfs it.
Digestion: A food vacuole is formed around the engulfed food particle containing digestive juices, which break down the food particle into simple substances.
Assimilation: Amoeba uses these substances.
Egestion: The undigested portion is removed from the body.
Higher Order Thinking Skills
I. 1.The carbohydrate in the chapati is broken down into sugar by the saliva. Hence it tastes sweet when chewed for a long time.
2. Digestion is completed in small intestine, and the absorption of the nutrients by the blood vessels happens here. Therefore, smal intestine is richly supplied with blood vessels.
3. Vegetables and fruits contain a lot of fibre. This helps in moving the undigested food to the anus. Thus it cleans the digestive system. |
4. Mammals such as whales have teeth which help in biting and chewing their food. These animals are called fitter feeders as they have to strain their food from water.
II. 1.The moth feeds on nectar from flowers.
2. ‘No, the moth may collect nectar from different types of flowers.
3. The moth has a straw-like mouth part that helps in sucking nectar.
4. Bees and butterflies have similar straw-like mouth parts to suck nectar from flowers.
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Question: Construct a triangle ABC in which AB= 5 cm, <B = 60 degree , altitude CD = 3cm. Construct another triangle similar to triangle ABC such that each side of triangle is 4/5 times that of the corresponding side of triangle ABC
Question: Draw a parallelogram ABCD in which BC=5cm, AB=3cm, and angle ABC=60. Divide it into triangles BCD and ABD by the diagonal BD. Construct the triangle BD’C’ similar to triangle BDC with scale factor 4/3. Draw the line segment D’A’ parallel to DA, where A’ lies on extended side BA . Is A’BC’D’ a parallelogram?
For more solved question visit: Chapter construction class10
Directions for 1 – 4: State true or false
1. If the probability of a candidate winning an election is 80%, then the probability of the opponent winning the election is also 80%.
2. If two dice are thrown simultaneously then the total number of outcomes is 12.
3. A throws a coin twice and ‘B’ throws a similar coin thrice, the possibility of getting ‘all heads’ is more for ‘B’ than ‘A’.
4. The sum of the probability of an event happening and the same not happening is always the same.
1. F 2. F 3. F 4. F
5. An unbiased die is thrown. What is the probability of getting?
(i) an even number? (ii) a multiple of 5? (iii) an even number or a multiple of 3? (iv) a multiple of 2 and 3?
6. Two unbiased coins are tossed simultaneously. What is the probability of getting(i) all heads? (ii) at least one head? (iii) at the most one tail? (iv) at least one head and one tail?
7. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. What is the probability of getting?
(i) an odd number as the sum? (ii) a total of at least 10? (iii) the same number on both dice? (iv) a sum greater then 10?
8. Find that the probability of a leap year selected at random will contain 53 Mondays.
9. One card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards. What is the probability of getting
(i) an ace or a king? (ii) a red card and a king? (iii) a face card? (iv) a king or a queen or a jack?
10. All the face cards are removed from a pack of 52 cards and are then shuffled well. One card is selected from the remaining cards. What is the probability of
(i) getting an ace? (ii) getting a red card? (iii) getting 10 of spade? (iv) getting a number less than 5?
11. A bag contains five red balls and some white balls. If the probability of drawing a white ball is double that of a red ball, find the number of white balls in the bag.
12. A bag contains 20 balls out of which ‘x’ are red.
(i) If one ball is drawn at random, what is the probability that it will not be a white ball?
(ii) If five more red balls are added, the probability of drawing a red ball will become 40%. Find the number of balls which are not red.
13. 1000 tickets of a lottery were sold and there are three prizes in the lottery. If Sachin has purchased one ticket, what is the probability of his winning a prize?
14. 26 cards marked with English letters A to Z (one letter on each card) are shuffled well. If one card is selected at random, what is the probability of getting?
(i) a vowel? (ii) a letter in the word PROBABILITY?
50 Mohan and Salim are friends. What is the probability that both will have
(i) the same birthday? (ii) different birthdays?
(iii) their birthday on the same weekday?
15. A jar contains 24 marbles. Some are blue and the others are green. If a marble is drawn at random, the probability that it is green is 3/2 . Find the number of blue marbles in the jar.
52. What is the probability that a number selected at random from the numbers 10, 20, 20, 30, 30, 30, 40, 40, 40, 40 will be their mean?
16. A game consists of tossing a coin three times and noting the outcome each time. If one gets the same outcome in all the three tosses, then he wins. What is the probability of a participant winning the game?
16. While shuffling a pack of 52 cards, Khushi dropped one card by mistake. What is the probability of the dropped card being a red queen?
17. A die is numbered in such a way that its faces show the numbers 1,2,2, 3, 3, 6. It is thrown twice and the total score in two throws is noted. Find the sample space of the experiment. What is the probability that the total score (i) is even? (ii) is odd? (iii) is at least 5?
18. A circle of diameter 7 cm is drawn inside A rectangle of dimensions 15 cm × 7 cm . If a coin is dropped randomly inside the rectangle, what is the probability that the coin lands inside the circle?
19. A piggy bank contains one hundred 50 p coins, fifty Re 1 coins, twenty Re 2 coins and ten Re 5 coins. If it is turned upside down one coin will fall. When Gautam turned it up side down for the first time, he got a Rs 2 coin. If he turns it upside down for a second time, what is the probability of getting
(i) an amount more than Re 1? (ii) a Rs 5 coin?(iii) a 50 p coin or Re 1 coin? (iv) at least one rupee?
20. In a game, Raju asks his friend Karan to write down a two-digit number secretly. What is the probability that Karan will write a doublet? What is the probability that Karan’s number is divisible by 2, 3 and 5?
21. Two customers, Mohan and Nishu are visiting a shop in the same week (Sunday to Saturday). Each is likely to visit the shop on any day as on any other day. What is the probability that both will visit the shop on (i) the same day? (ii) Consecutive days?
For more practice visit page: 10th probability for class10
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will conduct Class 12 board exams from February 15 to April 3 and Class 10 board exams from February 21 to March 29.
CBSE 10th Exam Time Table 2019
05 March 2019 --Urdu
07 March 2019 -- Maths
13 March 2019 -- Science
16 March 2019 -- Sanskrit
19 March 2019 -- Hindi
23 March 2019 -- English
27 March 2019 -- FIT
29 March 2019 -- Social Science
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We can divide cellular respiration into three metabolic processes:
Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
Each of these occurs in a specific region of the cell.
1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol.
The 6-carbon sugar, glucose (c6H12O6), is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon molecule(c3H14O3) called pyruvate . This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules.
2. The Krebs cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria.
Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA (Acetyl coenzyme), a 2-carbon molecule. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is released and captured in the form of NADH, FADH2, and ATP.
3. Oxidative phosphorylation via the electon transport chain is carried out on the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The electron transport chain allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD+ (NADH) and reduced FAD (FADH2). The energy released is captured in the form of ATP (3 ATP per NADH and 2 ATP per FADH2).
Note: In the absence of oxygen, respiration consists of two metabolic pathways: glycolysis and fermentation. Both of these occur in the cytosol.
Fermentation complements glycolysis and makes it possible for ATP to be continually produced in the absence of oxygen. By oxidizing the NADH produced in glycolysis, fermentation regenerates NAD+, which can take part in glycolysis once again to produce more ATP.
Each molecule of glucose can generate 36-38 molecules of ATP in aerobic respiration but only 2 ATP molecules in respiration without oxygen (through glycolysis and fermentation).
You have remembered that in cell, Cytosol is the fluid portion of a cell's cytoplasm, which lies outside the organelles and other insoluble components of the cytoplasm
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For more : see post 10th Biology: HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION SOLVE
1. “Different species use different strategies to determine sex of a new born individual. It can be environmental cues or genetically determined‟. Explain the statement by giving example for each strategy.
Ans: Environmental Cue –
(a) In some animals, the temperature at which fertilized eggs are kept determines whether the developing animal in egg is male or female eg lizard
(b) In some animals like snail, individual can change sex.
Genetically – A child who inherits an x chromosome from her father will be a girl and one who inherits a y chromosome from the father will be a boy.
2. a. Define the term Gene. b. The gene for red hair is recessive to the gene for black hair. What will be the hair colour of a child if he inherits a gene for red colour from his mother and a gene for black hair from his father? Express with the help of flow chart.
Ans: a. The functional unit of DNA which are made of nucleic acids and protein is called gene.
b. Given Black hair – father Dominant [ BB ] and Red hair – Mother – Recessive [ bb]
Parents Father BB/Bb X Mother Bb/bb
F1 Bb (Black)
3 .a. Mention any two point of difference between acquired and inherited traits. b. If the tail of a mouse is cut for twenty one generations, will the tail occur in the twenty second generation of that mouse? Give reason to support your answer. c. Define the term – Natural Selection.
Ans: a. Acquired Traits Inherited Traits
Trait acquired during its lifetime Traits inherited from its parents
cannot passed on to progeny passed on to progeny
Not present in the genetic makeup Present in the genetic makeup
b. The mouse continue to have information for presence of tail in its DNA So, mouse will continue to have tail, because it is an acquired trait.
c. The process by which nature selects organisms which are more suitably adapted and possesses favourable variations is called Natural Selection
4. With regard to turnip, carrot, sweet potato and potato, three belong to the same category. Identify those three modifications and mention whether they are homologous or analogous. Also mention the reason why the fourth modifications do not belong to the same category.
Ans: Turnip, Carrot, Sweet Potato – are modified root – Homologous organs but Potato – modified stem.
5. What are chromosomes ? Explain how in sexually reproducing organisms the number of chromosomes in the progeny is maintained
Ans: Chromosomes are thread like structures made up of DNA found in the nucleus of cell.
The original number of chromosomes becomes half during formation of gamete. Hence, when the gametes combine, the original number of chromosomes gets restored in the progeny.
6. Explain with an example for each, how the following provides evidences in favor of evolution in organisms:
(a) Homologous organs (b) Analogous organs (c) Fossils
Ans: Homologous organs – Study of homologous organs suggests that the organs having same structure but performing different functions have evolved from a common ancestor. Ex. - forelimbs of a frog, lizard, bird and man. Analogous organs – Study of Analogous organs suggests that these organs are having different origin and structural plan but perform same function . These are evolved from different ancestors and show adoption of organs for common use. Ex. – wings of butterfly and wings of bat.
Fossils – provide the missing links between two species. Fossil Archaeopteryx possess features of reptiles as well as birds. This suggests that birds have evolved from reptiles
7. Explain the following: (a) Speciation (b) Natural Selection
Ans: Speciation – The process by which new species develop from the existing species is known as speciation. Speciation takes place when variation is combined with geographical isolation.
Natural selection – this is the change in frequency of some genes in a population. This give survival advantage to a species from elimination. Ex. – in a population of beetles, a new variation (green colour) get survival benefit / advantage to green beetles whereas other (red) perishes.
8. How do Mendel’s experiments show that the (a) traits may be dominant or recessive, (b) traits are inherited independently ?
Ans: a) When Mendel cross pollinated pure tall pea plants with pure dwarf pea plants, only tall plants were obtained in F1 generation.
On self pollinating the F1 progeny, both tall and dwarf plants appeared in F2 generation in the ratio 3:1
Appearance of tall character in both the F1 and F2 shows that it is a dominant character. The absence of dwarf character in F1 generation and its reappearance in F2 shows dwarfness is the recessive character.
b) When Mendel conducted a dihybrid cross having two sets of characters, he obtained only one set of parental characters in F1 generation whereas in F2 generation he obtained both the set of parental characters now recombined in the ratio of 9:3:3:1.
The appearance of new recombinants in the F2 generation along with parental type shows that traits are inherited independently.
9. What do you mean by Gene flow, Genetic drift .
Ans: Gene flow is transfer of gene between population that are partly but not completely separated.
Genetic drift: It is the random change in the frequency of alleles (gene pair) in a population over successive generations. Genetic drift takes place due to (a) Severe changes in the DNA (b) Change in number of chromosomes
10. ‘‘It is possible that a trait is inherited but may not be expressed.’’ Give a suitable example to justify this statement.
Ans: Yes, it is possible.
Example – When pure tall pea plants are crossed with pure dwarf pea plants, only tall pea plants are obtained in F1 generation.
On selfing tall plants of F1, both tall and dwarf plants are obtained in F2 generation in the ratio 3:1.
Reappearance of the dwarf character, a recessive trait in F2 generation shows that the dwarf trait/ character was present in individuals of F1 but it did not express (due to the present of tallness, a dominant trait / character).
11. ‘‘It is a matter of chance whether a couple will have a male or a female child.’’ Justify this statement by drawing a flow chart.
Ans: A human male has XY sex-chromosomes and produces two types of sperms (heterogametic). Either with X-chromosome or with Y-chromosome.
A human female has XX sex-chromosomes and produce ova of one type (homogametic) all with X-chromosomes.
Parents Male Female
Gametes X Y XX
Progeny XX XY
Female (50%) Male (50%)
12. What is speciation? List four factors that could lead to speciation. Which of these cannot be a major factor in the speciation of a self-pollinating plant species? Explain.
Ans: Speciation is the process of the formation of new species from pre-existing ones.
Factors – (i) Mutations (ii) Natural selection (iii) Genetic drift (iv) Geographical Isolation
Geographical isolation cannot be a major factor in the speciation of a self pollinating plant species. This is because physical barrier cannot be created in self pollinating plants.
13. (a) Cite the evidence on the basis of which it is concluded that birds have evolved from reptiles.
(b) Insects, Octopus, Planaria and Vertebrates also possess eyes. Can these animals be grouped together on the basis of the eyes they possess. Why or why not ? Give reason to justify your answer.
Ans: a) i) Fossils showing imprints of feathers along with the bones in dinosaurs / reptiles found,
ii) They could not fly and presumably using the feathers for insulation, iii) Later they developed / evolved and adapted feathers for flight. iv) Thus, they give evidence that birds have evolved from reptiles.
b) No, the structure of the eye in each of these organisms is different / they have separate evolutionary origins.
14. How does sexual reproduction leads to similarities as well as variations ?
Ans: Similarities and variations are dependent on the type of allele combination an offspring will get from their parents. If a child get dominant alleles from father then he will look quite similar to his father and quit different from his mother. If he got a combination of dominant alleles from both the parents then he will be quite different from both the parents.
15. What is hybrid? Give term for (i) externally exhibited traits (ii) Traits developed by gene -
Ans: Organism having two or more mixed traits are called hybrid . Plants having two pairs of contrasting characters is called dihybrid. (i) Externally exhibited traits : Phenotype (ii) Traits developed by gene – Genotype
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Download quiz on Gandhi jee Cps samastipur
Q.1. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on
(a) October 5, 1896
(b) October 3, 1840
(c) October 2, 1869
(d) October 10, 1880
Q.2. At which place was Gandhiji born?
Q.3. What was Gandhiji's age when he got married to Kasturbai?
(a) 19 years
(b) 15 years
(d) 13 years
Q.4. Gandhiji confessed his guilt of stealing for the purpose of smoking in a letter, promising never to steal in future and asking for adequate punishment. To whom was this letter addressed?
(c) Elder Brother
Q.5. About how old was Gandhiji when he reached London to become a barrister?
(a) 20 years
(b) 19 years
(c) 21 years
(d) 18 years
Q.6. To become a barrister in England, one had to join one of the Inns of Courst. After obtaining admission, Gandhiji joined the Inner Temple on
(a) October 5, 1870
(b) December 15, 1885
(c) November 6, 1888
(d) January 3, 1880
Q.7. Devdas was Gandhiji's
(a) Only child
(b) Second child
(c) Eldest child
(d) Youngest child
Q.8. Gandhiji, the votary of nonviolence was shot dead on January 30, 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi, shortly after 5 p.m. while going to the prayer meeting. Which was that fateful day of the week?
Q.9. In which South African unit had most of the India emigrants taken up abode?
Q.10. While holding a first-class ticket Gandhiji was ordered by a railway official to shift to the van compartment. On his refusal to comply with the unjust order, a constable was called to push him out with bag and baggage. Identify the railway station where this incident took place.
1. (c) 1869
2. (a) Porbandar
3. (d) 13 years
4. (a) Father
5. (b) 19 years
6. (c) November 6, 1888
7. (d) Youngest Child
8. (c) Friday
9. (b) Natal
10. (c) Maritzburg
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