Q.1.Which of the following factors made autocracy unpopular in Russia?
(a) The German origin of the Tsarina Alexandra
(b) Poor advisors like the Monk Rasputin
(c) The huge cost of fighting in the World War I
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.2 Which of the following statements is incorrect about the Socialists till 1914?
(a) They helped various associations to win seats in the parliaments in Europe
(b) Socialists, supported by strong figures in parliamentary politics, shaped and influenced legislation
(c) They succeeded in forming a government in Europe
(d) Governments continued to be run by conservatives, liberals and radicals
Q.3.How can you say that the ‘liberals’ were not ‘democrats’?
(a) They did not believe in universal adult franchise
(b) They felt that only men of property should have a right to vote
(c) Women should not have right to vote
(d) All the above
Q.4.Which of the following statements is not correct about the ‘radicals’?
(a) They supported women’s right to vote
(b) They opposed the privileges of great landowners
(c) They were completely against the existence of private property
(d) They wanted a government based on the majority of a country’s population
(a) Industrial Revolution occurred
(b) New cities came up
(c) Railways expanded
(d) All the above
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]:
Q.1. Differentiate between the ideas of the liberals and radicals in Europe (take the time period as after the French Revolution).
(i) -The liberals did not believe in universal franchise. In contrast, radicals wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population.
(ii) Liberals felt men of prosperity mainly should have the vote. They did not want the vote for women. On the other hand the radicals supported women’s suffragette movements and opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
(ii) They were not against the existence of private property but disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few.
Q.2.Why do we say that liberals during this time could not be called ‘democrats’?
Ans.The liberals opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers and wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.
- They also argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. But, however, they could not be called democrats.
- They did not believe in universal adult franchise and also did not want the vote for women. They felt right to vote should only be for men of property.
Q.3. How should society, according to liberals and radicals, develop?
(i) Liberals and radicals were often property owners and employers.
(ii) They acquired wealth through industrial ventures and trade, they firmly believed that such efforts should be encouraged that its profits would be reaped if the work force in the economy was healthy and citizen were educated.
(iii) They put forth that societies could develop if the poor could labour, freedom of individuals was ensured and those with capital could operate without restraint.
Q.4. Why were socialists against private property and saw it as the root of all social ills?
Ans 1-. The people who propagated socialism said that individuals, who owned property, did provide employment to many people but they were concerned with personal gains only.
2- They did not bother about the welfare of the people.
3-They felt that if society controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests.
Q.5. Describe the incident known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.
1. Over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg went on strike in 1905, demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
2. When this procession reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks.
3. Over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded.
This incident, known as Bloody Sunday, started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution.
Q.6. Comment on the role of Vladimir Lenin in the revolution and his contribution to the economic policy.
Ans. 1.Vladimir Lenin played an important part in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
2. Lenin led the revolutionaries after the fall of the Tsar under Lenin’s leadership; the Bolshevik Party put forward clear policies to end the war.
3. Transfer land to the peasants and advance the slogan ‘All power to the Soviets’.
4. He was of the opinion that no genuine democracy could be established unless all the non-Russians were given equal rights.
5. These were the real objectives of the Russian Revolution and he fulfilled all these objectives. That is why Lenin’s name has become inseparable from the Russian Revolution.
Q.4.What was the immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution?
1. Most industries and banks were nationalised in November 1917.
2. This meant the government took over the ownership and management. Land was declared social property.
3. Peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
4. In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
5. They banned the use of old title of aristocracy.
Q.5. How did Russia's participation in the World War cause the fall of the Tsar?
Ans. 1. The war was initially popular and people rallied around Tsar Nicholas II.
2. The war continued, support became thin and Tsar's popularity declined. Anti-German sentiments became high.
3. The Tsarina Alexandra's German origins and poor advisers, especially a monk called Rasputin, made the autocracy unpopular.
4. Defeats were shocking and demoralising. Russia's armies lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917.
5. The destruction of crops and buildings led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The situation discredited the government and the Tsar.