NCERT Solutions In-text Q & A NCERT Book - Page No 269
Q1: What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?
Ans: The following changes can be made in our habits to become more environment-friendly:
1. By using the principle of 3R's i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
2. Always separate the biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste;
3. Plastic, paper, or glass must be recycled or reused and not dumped with other wastes
4. Switch off the electrical appliances when not in use; Avoid wastage of energy, Water and food ;
5. Should dispose the wastes safely and not disperse in public places
6. Careful use of fuels like gas & petrol;
7. Use of alternate sources of energy;
8. By using local transport like buses or train.
9. Use of natural fertilizers like manures
2. What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
Ans: Advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims:
(i) Availability of all resources at a time;
(ii) Faster development and growth of economy;
(iii) Rapid Industrialisation;
(iv) Agricultural developments;
But we should remember that these advantages are very limited as this would lead to the depletion of natural resources for present and future generation. This may also cause havoc with the ecology of the earth.
3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long term perspective in managing our resources?
Ans: If resources are used in accordance with short term aims, present generation will be able to only utilize the resources properly for growth and development. But if we use resources with long term aims, future generation will also be able to utilize resources for fulfilling its needs. The all around growth of the world will be in a balanced manner and uniform and it would preserve our ecology. Thus it would be better to use our natural resources with a long term perspective so that it could be used by the present generation as well as conserved for future use.
4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
Ans: There should be equitable distribution of resources so that all people, all countries will be able to fulfil its needs and could grow properly using all resources equally. Each and every one gets his share of the resource and it would fulfil the fundamental right of equality. Forces working against equitable distribution of resources are:
Natural forces: 1. Land form 2. Climate 3.Distribution of rainfall. 4. Types of soil.
Man-made forces: 1. Human greed, 2. Corruption, 3. Restrictions by higher authorities, 4. Lobby of the rich and powerful people & companies and 5. Political interferences
NCERT Solutions In-text Q & A NCERT Book - Page No 273
Q1. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
Ans: We should conserve forest and wildlife because:
1. To preserve the biodiversity (range of different life-forms) so as to avoid the loss of ecological stability.
2. Forests play an important role in maintaining ecological balance;
3. It may affect these habitants like tribes or rural people as it is a source of their food, shelter, & livelihood;
4. Forest provide us oxygen, medicines, etc
5. It maintains climate, hydrological cycle, quality of soil, the water sources, and the amount of rainfall;
4. Forest prevents soil erosion.
5. Plants are dependent on animals and birds for their pollination and seed dispersal.
6. Provides various forest products are used in house and as raw materials in industries. So, we can say that without forests and wildlife, we cannot imagine our life on this earth.
Q2. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
Ans: Following measures are taken to conserve forests:
1. Conversion of forests by making more national parks, sanctuaries, biosphere and reserve forests;
2.To take help of local people who resides in and around the forests in conserving forest through awareness programmes, awards, govt. Help;
3.Not to allow the destruction of forests for making un-necessary roads, dams and hotels etc.
4.Planting more trees, and Rate of afforestation must be more than that of deforestation.
5. Govt should enact strong laws to prevent illegal forest activities and to promote better management of the forest resources.
NCERT Solutions In-text Q & A NCERT Book - Page No 276
Q1. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.
Ans: India has a long history of traditional systems of water harvesting/management. Many water harvesting structures and systems specific to the different regions and culture has been developed. They harvested the rain drop directly. From rooftops, they collected water and stored it in tanks built in their courtyards. From open community lands, they collected the rain and stored it in artificial wells. They harvested monsoon runoff by capturing water from swollen streams during the monsoon season and stored it various forms of water bodies like tanks. They harvested water from flooded rivers.
2. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/ mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Ans: In plains, the water harvesting structures are mostly circular shaped earthen structures. The most of the plain or desert or plateau areas are having artificial water collection areas like Baowalis, Kunds, bands, Johads, talab, etc. These are low, straight, and created by digging lands or rocks. These are used to collect waters from rain, flood, etc. In hilly regions, Kulh, Naula,Kul, Zabo, Zings are the some of the system of water harvesting/management which are followed in J&K, Himachal, Uttarakhand, and North-east areas. Most of these methods are meant to collect waters from glaciers and rain by making channels and pits.
Q3. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
Ans: The source of water in our region is River water supplied from the Yamuna canal by the local authorities. This type of Water supply is available to the limited people and not to entire population living in Gurgaon area. The Many new, un-authorised, and slum colonies use ground water through bore wells, hand pumps, etc.
NCERT Solutions Exercises Q & A NCERT Book - Page No 278
Ans: Changes that can be suggested in my home to be environment-friendly are as follows:
1. Always switch off the electrical appliances & Gadgets when not in use;
2. Do not waste water and always turn off taps while brushing or bathing and get repaired the leaking taps;
3. Separate biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste into separate bins before giving to waste/garbage collectors;
4. Construct water harvesting systems and if residing in rural areas, always built composting pits;
5. Use energy efficient devices; and
6. Use of public transport as far as possible.
Q2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly?
Ans: Changes that can be implemented in my school to make it environment friendly are as follows:
1. Switching off lights and fans when not required;
2. Turn the taps off when not in use;
3. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes should be separated into separate bins;
4. Proper and strong water harvesting systems;
5. Plantation of trees;
6. Organising awareness programmes for students, teachers and parents;
7. Participation in the community programmes related to environment/ecology.
Q3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
Ans: The forest department of the government should have the authority to decide the management of forest produces. This is because the forest department is the care taker of the forest land and is responsible for any damage to the forest. But it should take the local people & authorities along with social activists and NGOs in to its decision making body. It will help in
1. Better utilisation of resources without disturbing ecological balance;
2. Continuous monitoring to avoid excessive exploitation;
3. building the confidence of Govt among the society; and
4. also in enacting a area specific approach for the better management of forest & wildlife resources.
Q4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?
Ans: (a) Forest and wildlife: (i) By making aware the general people about the benefits of forest and wildlife for society, country and ecology; 2. By telling them the better methods to promote and better manage the forest and wildlife; 3. Organise rallies and protest against the cutting of trees, poaching of wild animals, wasteful use of forest land and other illegal activities; 4. Less use of the general items which are made from the forest raw materials and 5. Continuous tree plantation through community participation. (b) Water resources: (i) Turn off taps when brushing or bathing and repair leaking taps immediately; (ii) Accepting and implementation of various rainwater harvesting methods;
(v) We should avoid the discharge of sewage and other wastes into sewage and drainage systems, rivers and other water resources.
(vi) Use of drip & sprinkle system of irrigation;
(vii) Optimum utilisation for domestic & industrial purpose.
(c) Coal and petroleum: (i) Use of public transport or practice car pooling to minimise the use fuels; (ii) Avoid or stop use of coal as a fuel; (iii)Promote the use of alternative sources of energy like solar energy instead of coal and petroleum; (iv) to develop best technology for hybrid type transports;
Q5. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
Ans: I can reduce the consumption of various natural resources in the following ways: (i) stop the cutting of trees for domestic or industrial purpose;
(ii) Use recycled paper and stop using non-biodegradable substances;
(iii) Turn off taps when brushing or bathing and repair leaking taps immediately; (iv) We should practice rainwater harvesting. (v) We should practice car pooling to avoid the excessive use of petroleum. (vi) Switching off lights and fans when not required
(viii) Use of alternative sources of energy such as hydro-energy and solar energy.
Q6. List five things you have done over the last one week to (a) conserve our natural resources. (b) increase the pressure on our natural resources.
Ans: (a) To conserve our natural resources:
1. Travelled by public transports and cycle;
2. Used recycled paper;
3. Separated biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste into separate waste bags
; 4. Avoided food wastage & Planted trees
5. Reduced consumption of electricity by Switching off lights and have not used room heaters in winter;
6. Turned off taps when brushing or bathing and got repaired two leaking taps;
(b) To increase the pressure on our natural resources:
1. Sometimes in night forgot to switch off lights;
2. Used non-recycled papers for school work;
3. Used plastics and polythene bags for carrying goods;
4. Used family car to visit some places thereby wasting fuel;
5. Used room heater in night; 6. Sometimes forgot to turn-off taps while using water for bathing, etc and wasted water for gardening & car wash.
Q7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
Ans: I would incorporate the following below mentioned changes in my life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources:
(i) Change in the personal attitudes and daily life practices;
(ii) Conservation of water by adopting the following methods:
a. Waste minimum amount of water while using and repair leaking taps
b. Practice rainwater harvesting
c. Economic use of water for domestic & industrial purpose
d. Using less water consuming technique for toilets;
e. Drip and Sprinkling irrigation methods
(iii) Conservation of energy by adopting the following methods:
a. Switching off un-necessary lights, fans, other electrical gadgets;
b. Use of public transports, cycles, and walk;
c. Use of alternate source of energy
d. Avoid using room heaters.
(iv) Stop cutting trees and practice plantation of trees.
(v) Stop using plastic and polythene bags for carrying goods.
(vi) Use principle of three Rs- reduces, recycle and re-use.
(vii) Use recycled paper.
(viii) Separation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste into separate bins.